Common name: 
4 - frequently foraged
Prefers a warm well-drained loamy soil in a sunny position[1, 11]. The red mulberry is sometimes cultivated for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties[183]. It is said to be of no value as a fruiting tree in Britain[1, 11]. Trees come into bearing when about 10 years old, fruiting best between the ages of 30 - 85 years and declining from the age of 125 years[227]. A good plant to grow grapes into. The grapes are difficult to pick but they always seem to be healthier and free from fungal diseases[201]. Mulberries have brittle roots and so need to be handled with care when planting them out[238]. Any pruning should only be carried out in the winter when the plant is fully dormant because mulberries bleed badly when cut[238]. Ideally prune only badly placed branches and dead wood[238]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Dioecious[229] Male and female plants must be grown if fruit is required.
The seed germinates best if given 2 - 3 months cold stratification[80, 98]. Sow the seed as soon as it is ripe if possible, otherwise in February in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in the first spring, though it sometimes takes another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Plant out in spring. A good percentage take, though they sometimes fail to thrive[78, 113]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 25 - 30cm with a heel of 2 year old wood, autumn or early spring in a cold frame or a shady bed outside[78, 113,200]. Bury the cuttings to threequarters of their depth. Layering in autumn[200].
Cooke: The large, elongated fruit is up to 5cm long and 1cm in diameter[183]. The skin is red-black, the flavour is a good combination of sweetness with some tartness[183]. A hardy tree, though it is susceptible to fungal dieback[183].
Morus rubra

Drought tolerant: No

Habitats: semi-shade, woods

Edible Uses: fruit, leaves

Other Uses: fiber, lumber

Medicinal Uses: anthelmintic, cathartic, febrifuge

Flood tolerant: Maybe

Zone hardiness: 5

Family: Moraceae

Genus: Morus

Physical characteristics: deciduous, tree
Fruit - raw, cooked or made into preserves[2, 3, 21, 62, 149, 183]. Large and sweet with a good flavour, the fruit can be up to 3cm long[200]. The fruit can also be dried and ground into a powder[183]. This is used to make a delicious confection with almonds and other nuts[183]. The fruit is soft and juicy, when fully ripe it falls from the tree and is easily squashed[227]. Unripe fruits can cause stomach disorders[226]. Young shoots and unfolding leaves - raw or cooked. The root bark is anthelmintic and cathartic[21]. A tea made from the roots has been used in the treatment of weakness, difficult urination, dysentery, tapeworms and as a panacea[222, 257]. The sap is used in the treatment of ringworm[222, 257]. Another report says that the milky juice obtained from the axis of the leaf is used[21]. The fruits are used to reduce fevers[222]. A cloth can be made from the fibrous bark[149]. Wood - coarse-grained, light, very durable, not strong, soft, rather tough. It weighs about 45lb per cubic foot and is used for boats, fencing and cooperage[46, 61, 82, 227, 229].
References: [1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951 Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]). [2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6 Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references. [3] Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles 1972 ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them. [11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981 A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures. [21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2 Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book. [43] Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. 1950 A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America. [46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959 An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader. [61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202 Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader. [62] Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold 1982 ISBN 0442222009 Very readable. [78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948 A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants. [80] McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books 1985 ISBN 0-901361-21-6 Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading. [82] Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. 1965 ISBN 0-486-20278-X Two volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not really for the casual reader. [98] Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. 0 Very comprehensive guide to growing trees and shrubs from seed. Not for the casual reader. [113] Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press 1987 ISBN 0942375009 A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader. [149] Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press 1987 ISBN 0-292-78958-3 Fairly readable, it gives details of habitats and some of the uses of trees growing in Texas. [159] McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press 1977 ISBN 0-253-28925-4 A nice pocket guide to this region of America. [183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world. [200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5 Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed. [201] Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. 1993 ISBN 0-304-34324-2 A well produced and very readable book. [222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225 A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties. [226] Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. 1989 ISBN 0889025649 Very good on identification for non-experts, the book also has a lot of information on plant uses. [227] Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. 1982 ISBN 0292780206 A readable guide to the area, it contains descriptions of the plants and their habitats with quite a bit of information on plant uses. [229] Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1980 ISBN 0442238622 A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions. [238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31 A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant. [257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9 Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader. [274] Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas Botanical Research Institute, Texas. 1999 ISBN 1-889878-01-4 An excellent flora, which is also available on-line.